There have been many fascinating psychological experiments conducted throughout history that have shed light on human behavior and psychology. Here are five of the most interesting psychological experiments:
1. Stanford Prison Experiment
The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted by psychologist Philip Zimbardo in 1971 to investigate how people adapt to roles of power and submission. Participants were randomly assigned to play the role of a prisoner or a guard in a simulated prison environment. The experiment was supposed to last for two weeks but was terminated after only six days due to the extreme and abusive behavior of the guards.
2. Milgram Experiment
The Milgram Experiment was conducted by psychologist Stanley Milgram in 1961 to study obedience to authority. Participants were asked to administer electric shocks to a person they believed was a fellow participant in a study, but who was actually an actor. The shocks were not real, but the participants believed they were. Despite the actor’s pleas for the shocks to stop, the majority of participants continued to administer the shocks, even when they believed the actor was in extreme pain.
3. Little Albert Experiment
The Little Albert Experiment was conducted by psychologist John B. Watson in 1920 to study the effects of classical conditioning on emotions. The experiment involved conditioning a nine-month-old infant, known as “Little Albert,” to fear a white rat by associating it with a loud noise. The experiment has been heavily criticized for its ethical implications, as it traumatized the infant and did not provide any debriefing or follow-up care.
4. Bobo Doll Experiment
The Bobo Doll Experiment was conducted by psychologist Albert Bandura in 1961 to investigate how children learn aggression through observation and imitation. The experiment involved children watching a video of an adult being aggressive towards a Bobo doll. The children who saw the aggressive behavior were more likely to engage in aggressive behavior towards the doll, demonstrating the power of modeling and observational learning.
5. The Marshmallow Test
The Marshmallow Test was conducted by psychologist Walter Mischel in the 1960s to study self-control and delayed gratification. The experiment involved offering young children a choice between one small reward (such as a marshmallow) immediately, or two small rewards if they waited for a short period. The children who were able to delay gratification and wait for the two rewards ended up having better outcomes in later life, such as higher academic achievement and better social skills.
These are just a few of the many fascinating psychological experiments that have been conducted throughout history. These experiments have provided valuable insights into human behavior and psychology, and their findings have had far-reaching implications for many fields, including education, law, and public policy. However, most of these experiments were highly controversial due to the numerous ethical concerns surrounding the methods of the experiments. Psychologists have learned from these early mistakes, and now invest significant time and research into ensuring that their methods are humane and ethically sound.